Sometimes I scratch my head when I read about the government' s efforts to improve schools:new standards and tests to be applied, strict teacher evaluations, and threats of school closures and job losses. They frighten the school employees, not to mention the students. Instead of making people unable to solveproblems or try new ideas--which is what fear does to us--research on school reform strongly suggests that policy-makers should encourage school leaders totake a more humane approach. In their study on the reform efforts of twelve Chicago public schools, Bryk and Schneider found that enabling positive social relationships between the adults was the key to successful school improvement and that trust was at the heart of those relationships.
Trust in schools comes down to one thing:psychological safety or safety tospeak one's mind,to discuss with openness and honesty what is and isn' t working,to make collective decisions.Yet this kind of safety doesn't come easily to schools. According to Bryk and Schneider, the adults in school rely on each other to do their jobs correctly and with integrity (正直). The challeage is that our expectations are very diverse based on our unique backgrounds.
At one school where I taught, each teacher had different expectations abouthow much effort teachers should put into their work--a big difference between the teachers who left af~the last bell and those who worked into the evening.
And when expectations are uncoasci or unspoken, it becomes impossible for others to live up to them.We also make assumptions about the intentions behind a person' s behavior. As we all Imam,assumptions are often wrong. For example, parents and teachers my think the principal taml particular decision based on his career advancement rather than hat' s best for the studeata. don't feel psychologically safe to question our assumptions and e~ aecmtiatm, trust itiea am the window and our relationships suffer.
48. According to Paragraph 1,why does the author scratch his head?
A. Because he doesn' t know what to do once schools are closed.
B. Because he is not sure about the practicability of those new tests.
C. Because he is concerned that many teachers will lose their jobs.
D. Because he is not in favor of the government' s reform efforts.
49. According to Bryk and Schneider, what was most important for successful school improvemt?
A. New standards and tests in schools.
B. Positive social relationships.
C. Strict teacher and student evaluations.
D. Assistance of the government.
50. What is meant by trust in school?
A. Freedom to express one' s views,
B. Extra effort teachers put into their work.
C. Independence of the teachers in schools.
D. Unconscious and unspoken expectations.
51. What does the author say about the assumptions made about the intentions behind a person's behavior?
A. They should be trusted.
B. They are often bold.
C. They are often incorrect.
D. They should be encouraged.
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